Annotated Bibliography for Culminating Project: ELLs and the relationship between Speaking, Writing and Reading.
1) McElvain, C. M. (2010). Transactional Literature circles and the reading comprehension of English learners in the mainstream classroom. Journal of Research in Reading, 33, 178-205.
This article focuses on Transactional Literature Circles, or TLC, as an intervention for ELLs who may read with fluency but lack comprehension. Linguistic comprehension is very important for reading comprehension because many verbal strategies, such as knowledge of key concepts, vocabulary, and knowledge of syntax, help when students are building their reading comprehension skills. The TLC model implements both language and culture into the circle. The children become interactive agents when relating to peers, teacher, and text.
2) Zhang, J., & Stahl, K. A. D. (2011). Collaborative reasoning: Language-rich discussions for English learners. The Reading Teacher, 65,257-260.
Collaborative learning is the focus of this article. It is suggested that CL provides a meaningful forum for communication and language development as well as thinking skills with ELLs. One feature of CL is open participation. Students may talk without raising their hands, but soon they learn to take turns in order to hear what each participant has to say. The benefit of this kind of learning is that students are able to go in depth with their thoughts and ideas, allowing ELLs to use higher order thinking, while expressing themselves with their acquired language skills.
3) Helman, L. A., & Burns, M. K. (2008). What does oral language have to do with it? Helping young English-language learners acquire a sight word vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, 62 (1), 14-19.
This article suggests that there is an important connection between oral and written language skills. Sight word recognition is very important for speaking as well as reading comprehension in ELLs. Students must have ample opportunity to read and study high-frequency words. This article also points out that language development is extremely important for literacy skills to increase.
4) Wallace, C. (2008). Vocabulary: The key to teaching English language learners to read. Education Digest, 73 (9), 36-39.
This article looks at ELLs who are fluent in English but who lack the ability to reach an appropriate reading level. The suggestion is to develop a breadth and depth of vocabulary, which will become a direct link to better reading comprehension. Areas of importance are: the use of cognates, teaching the meaning of basic words, and review and reinforcement. Knowing Tier 1 words is very important.
5) Purdy, Joyce. (2008). Inviting conversation: meaningful talk about texts for English language learners. Literacy, 42(1), 44-51.
This article proposes four ways for teachers to support ELLs by engaging them in meaningful conversation about text. This article is a result of a study conducted in a third grade classroom. Children read text in a collaborative setting. They are then able to ask questions, and contribute meaningful insights among themselves and with the teacher. Open-ended questions are asked so that there are no wrong answers. The ELLs are encouraged to build on each other’s ideas.